rpm命令用法详解及rpm –help

RPM软件包管理器(RPM Package Manager)rpm原本是Red Hat Linux发行版专门用来管理Linux各项套件的程序,由于它遵循GPL规则且功能强大方便,因而广受欢迎,逐渐受到其他发行版的采用。rpm让Linux软件的安装、升级更加简单。


安装软件包:rpm -ivh aliyunbaike.rpm;
升级软件包:rpm -Uvh aliyunbaike.rpm;
移走软件包:rpm -e aliyunbaike.rpm;
获取安装包信息:rpm -ql
列出服务器上的一个文件属于哪一个RPM包:rpm -qf
列出所有被安装的rpm package:rpm -qa
列出一个未被安装进系统的RPM包文件中包含有哪些文件:rpm -qilp


-b<完成阶段><套件档>+或-t <完成阶段><套件档>+:设置包装套件的完成阶段,并指定套件档的文件名称;

rpm --help

[root@aliyunbaike ~]# rpm --help
Usage: rpm [OPTION...]

Query/Verify package selection options:
  -a, --all                        query/verify all packages
  -f, --file                       query/verify package(s) owning file
  -g, --group                      query/verify package(s) in group
  -p, --package                    query/verify a package file
  -W, --ftswalk                    query/verify package(s) from TOP file tree walk
  --pkgid                          query/verify package(s) with package identifier
  --hdrid                          query/verify package(s) with header identifier
  --fileid                         query/verify package(s) with file identifier
  --specfile                       query a spec file
  --triggeredby                    query the package(s) triggered by the package
  --whatrequires                   query/verify the package(s) which require a dependency
  --whatprovides                   query/verify the package(s) which provide a dependency
  --nomanifest                     do not process non-package files as manifests

Query options (with -q or --query):
  -c, --configfiles                list all configuration files
  -d, --docfiles                   list all documentation files
  --dump                           dump basic file information
  -l, --list                       list files in package
  --queryformat=QUERYFORMAT        use the following query format
  -s, --state                      display the states of the listed files

Verify options (with -V or --verify):
  --nofiledigest                   don't verify digest of files
  --nomd5                          don't verify digest of files
  --nofiles                        don't verify files in package
  --nodeps                         don't verify package dependencies
  --noscript                       don't execute verify script(s)

File tree walk options (with --ftswalk):
  --comfollow                      follow command line symlinks
  --logical                        logical walk
  --nochdir                        don't change directories
  --nostat                         don't get stat info
  --physical                       physical walk
  --seedot                         return dot and dot-dot
  --xdev                           don't cross devices
  --whiteout                       return whiteout information

Signature options:
  --addsign                        sign package(s) (identical to --resign)
  -K, --checksig                   verify package signature(s)
  --delsign                        delete package signatures
  --import                         import an armored public key
  --resign                         sign package(s) (identical to --addsign)
  --nodigest                       don't verify package digest(s)
  --nosignature                    don't verify package signature(s)

Database options:
  --initdb                         initialize database
  --rebuilddb                      rebuild database inverted lists from installed package headers

Install/Upgrade/Erase options:
  --aid                            add suggested packages to transaction
  --allfiles                       install all files, even configurations which might otherwise be skipped
  --allmatches                     remove all packages which match <package> (normally an error is generated if <package> specified multiple packages)
  --badreloc                       relocate files in non-relocatable package
  -e, --erase=<package>+           erase (uninstall) package
  --excludedocs                    do not install documentation
  --excludepath=<path>             skip files with leading component <path>
  --fileconflicts                  detect file conflicts between packages
  --force                          short hand for --replacepkgs --replacefiles
  -F, --freshen=<packagefile>+     upgrade package(s) if already installed
  -h, --hash                       print hash marks as package installs (good with -v)
  --ignorearch                     don't verify package architecture
  --ignoreos                       don't verify package operating system
  --ignoresize                     don't check disk space before installing
  -i, --install                    install package(s)
  --justdb                         update the database, but do not modify the filesystem
  --nodeps                         do not verify package dependencies
  --nofiledigest                   don't verify digest of files
  --nomd5                          don't verify digest of files (obsolete)
  --nocontexts                     don't install file security contexts
  --noorder                        do not reorder package installation to satisfy dependencies
  --nosuggest                      do not suggest missing dependency resolution(s)
  --noscripts                      do not execute package scriptlet(s)
  --notriggers                     do not execute any scriptlet(s) triggered by this package
  --oldpackage                     upgrade to an old version of the package (--force on upgrades does this automatically)
  --percent                        print percentages as package installs
  --prefix=<dir>                   relocate the package to <dir>, if relocatable
  --relocate=<old>=<new>           relocate files from path <old> to <new>
  --replacefiles                   ignore file conflicts between packages
  --replacepkgs                    reinstall if the package is already present
  --test                           don't install, but tell if it would work or not
  -U, --upgrade=<packagefile>+     upgrade package(s)

Common options for all rpm modes and executables:
  -D, --define='MACRO EXPR'        define MACRO with value EXPR
  -E, --eval='EXPR'                print macro expansion of EXPR
  --macros=<FILE:...>              read <FILE:...> instead of default file(s)
  --nodigest                       don't verify package digest(s)
  --nosignature                    don't verify package signature(s)
  --rcfile=<FILE:...>              read <FILE:...> instead of default file(s)
  -r, --root=ROOT                  use ROOT as top level directory (default: "/")
  --querytags                      display known query tags
  --showrc                         display final rpmrc and macro configuration
  --quiet                          provide less detailed output
  -v, --verbose                    provide more detailed output
  --version                        print the version of rpm being used

Options implemented via popt alias/exec:
  --scripts                        list install/erase scriptlets from package(s)
  --setperms                       set permissions of files in a package
  --setugids                       set user/group ownership of files in a package
  --conflicts                      list capabilities this package conflicts with
  --obsoletes                      list other packages removed by installing this package
  --provides                       list capabilities that this package provides
  --requires                       list capabilities required by package(s)
  --info                           list descriptive information from package(s)
  --changelog                      list change logs for this package
  --xml                            list metadata in xml
  --triggers                       list trigger scriptlets from package(s)
  --last                           list package(s) by install time, most recent first
  --dupes                          list duplicated packages
  --filesbypkg                     list all files from each package
  --fileclass                      list file names with classes
  --filecolor                      list file names with colors
  --fscontext                      list file names with security context from file system
  --fileprovide                    list file names with provides
  --filerequire                    list file names with requires
  --filecaps                       list file names with POSIX1.e capabilities

Help options:
  -?, --help                       Show this help message
  --usage                          Display brief usage message